Gàu Tiếng Anh Là Gì

     
If you"ve ever had dandruff, with its easily seen trắng flakes, you probably know that it can be a little embarrassing. This is especially true for kids and teenagers, who may already be self-conscious about their looks.

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Nếu các bạn từng bị gàu, với khá nhiều vảy trắng hay thấy thì bạn chắc cũng biết gàu rất có thể gây ngượng song chút. Điều này quan trọng đúng với trẻ bé dại và thanh thiếu niên, có thể đã trường đoản cú ý thức được vẻ bề ngoài của mình rồi.

If you"ve ever had dandruff, with its easily seen trắng flakes, you probably know that it can be a little embarrassing. This is especially true for kids và teenagers, who may already be self-conscious about their looks.

Fortunately, dandruff is harmless & can almost always be controlled, often with simple over-the-counter remedies.

About dandruff

Dandruff is another name for a condition called seborrheic dermatitis, or seborrhea, specifically seborrhea that occurs on the scalp. It"s a very common condition in kids and adults alike, regardless of age or race.

Dandruff causes flaky, white, or yellowish skin to size on the scalp and other oily parts of the body. Other areas that can get seborrhea include the eyebrows, eyelids, ears, crease of the nose, back of the neck, armpits, groin, and bellybutton.

In some cases, dandruff can cause redness in the affected area and may appear crusty và start to lớn itch, sometimes pretty badly. On rare occasions, dandruff can even lead to hair loss if it isn"t treated. Any lost hair should grow back once the dandruff is treated, though.

Dandruff is not contagious or an indication of poor hygiene, and it often can be controlled by daily shampooing with a gentle shampoo. In more severe cases, a doctor may recommend a medicated shampoo or cream.

Causes

The exact cause of seborrhea isn"t known, although some researchers believe it can be caused by an overproduction of skin oil (sebum) in the oil glands & hair follicles. A type of yeast (fungus) called malassezia can grow in the sebum along with bacteria. This may be another factor in the development of seborrhea.

The flakes associated with dandruff sometimes can be caused by conditions other than seborrhea, including:

* dry skin, such as the kind caused by cold, dry winter air

* other skin conditions lượt thích eczema, acne, or psoriasis that can cause dead skin cells lớn build up on the scalp

* shampooing too often or not often enough

* using hair-care products or hair dye that leave a dry, flaky residue or having a bad reaction lớn these products

Dandruff often runs in families and the risk of dandruff can be increased by certain biological factors, such as being a man, being overweight, having oily skin, or having a neurological condition such as Parkinson"s disease or a condition lượt thích HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) that harms the body"s immune system.

Symptoms

Often, the first symptom someone with dandruff will notice are white flakes of dead skin in the hair or on the shoulders. The scalp may also become itchy & scaly.

Other signs of seborrhea:

* dry, flaky skin that gets worse in cold weather

* dry skin on the face, forehead, ears, or eyebrows

* flaky skin on the chest or other parts of the body

* greasy or oily areas of skin on the scalp or other parts of the body

* mild redness in the affected area

* temporary hair loss

When to hotline the doctor

Most cases of dandruff won"t require a doctor"s visit & can be treated with special dandruff shampoos available without a prescription.

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But if your child"s dandruff doesn"t get better after a few weeks of using dandruff shampoo, or if the skin becomes red or swollen, you should liên hệ your doctor. Also gọi if your child"s seborrhea gets worse, spreads to lớn other parts of the body, or causes hair loss.

Treatment

Many cases of mild dandruff can be treated just by shampooing every day with a gentle shampoo. This will reduce oiliness và keep dead skin cells from building up.

Moderate cases of dandruff usually can be treated with an over-the-counter dandruff shampoo. Many types are available & not every one works for every person, so you may need khổng lồ experiment until you find the one that works for your child.

The different types of dandruff shampoos include:

* Selenium sulfide shampoos. These help slow the rate at which skin cells die & may combat the fungus that can cause seborrhea.

* Tar-based shampoos. Made from coal tar, these also slow down the rate at which skin cells die and flake off.

* Zinc pyrithione shampoos. These tackle the fungus on the scalp that can cause seborrhea.

* Salicylic acid shampoos. These help remove flaky skin from the scalp but may leave it dry, which can lead khổng lồ more flaking.

* Ketoconazole shampoos. These shampoos, available in stronger doses with a prescription, are designed to lớn reduce fungus on the scalp.

At first, kids with dandruff may need lớn use one of these shampoos every day to lớn get their dandruff under control. After that, they can generally cut back lớn once or twice a week. Have your child mát xa the shampoo into his or her scalp & let it sit for at least 5 minutes before rinsing it out. After the dandruff shampoo has been rinsed away, kids can use regular shampoo or conditioner.

If your child"s dandruff doesn"t respond to lớn over-the-counter dandruff shampoos, or if seborrhea develops in places other than the scalp, talk to lớn a doctor. You may need khổng lồ get your child a prescription-strength shampoo or an antifungal lotion or cream containing steroids.

After treatment, some people will notice that areas of skin that had seborrhea will be lighter in màu sắc than the rest of their skin. This is more common in those with darker skin. This màu sắc difference will fade over time và the skin"s color will eventually return lớn normal.

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Dandruff is a chronic condition, meaning it can"t be cured, but it can almost always be kept under control. Once it"s under control, it"s usually impossible to detect.